The proper use of diamond blades is critical to providing economical solutions for the construction industry. The Concrete Sawing and Drilling Association, that is focused on the advancement and professionalism of concrete cutting operators, offers operators the equipment and skills essential to understand and employ diamond blades for optimal performance. CSDA accomplishes this goal by giving introductory and advanced training programs for operators with hands-on education in flat sawing, wall sawing, core drilling, wire sawing and hand sawing. Additionally they offer some safety and training videos and also a safety handbook in support with their effort to teach sawing and drilling operators. This information will discuss using diamond tools, primarily saw blades, and give strategies for their cost-effective use.
Diamond is well known since the hardest substance known to man. One would think that an operator of cut to length machine could take advantage of the hardness characteristics of diamond to maximum advantage, i.e. the harder the better. In practice, this is not always true. Whether the operator is cutting or drilling concrete, stone, masonry or asphalt, the diamonds must wear in order to maximize the performance in the cutting tool. This short article will examine the role diamond plays in cutting tools and exactly how an operator can use analytical methods to maximize the application of the diamond cutting tools thereby increasing productivity and maximizing the lifespan in the tool.
Diamond crystals could be synthetically grown in a multitude of qualities, styles and sizes. Synthetic diamond has replaced natural diamond in virtually all construction applications because of this ability to tailor-have the diamond for that specific application. Diamond is grown with smooth crystal faces in the cubo-octahedral shape and the color is typically from light yellow to medium yellow-green. Diamond is likewise grown into a specific toughness, which generally increases because the crystal size decreases. The actual size of the diamond crystals, typically called mesh size, determines the number of diamond cutting points exposed on the surface of a saw blade. Generally, larger mesh size diamond is utilized for cutting softer materials while smaller mesh size diamond is utilized for cutting harder materials. However, there are numerous interrelated considerations and those general guidelines may not always apply.
The number of crystals per volume, or diamond concentration, also affects the cutting performance of your diamond tool. Diamond concentration, typically called CON, is a way of measuring the quantity of diamond found in a segment based upon volume. A typical reference point is 100 CON, which equals 72 carats per cubic inch. Diamond concentration for construction tools is usually in the range of 15-50 CON. A 32 CON means the tool has 23 carats per cubic inch, or about 4 carats per segment. Increasing the diamond concentration by offering more cutting points will make the bond act harder while also increasing diamond tool life. Optimum performance can be achieved as soon as the diamond tool manufacturer utilizes their experience and analytical capabilities to balance diamond concentration and also other factors to obtain optimum performance for that cutting operator.
Diamond Shape & Size
Diamond shapes may vary from tough blocky cubo-octahedral crystals (Figure 1) to more friable crystals with less well-defined geometry (Figure 2). Diamond crystals with blocky shapes and sharp edges are often more appropriate for stone and construction applications. The blocky shape provides greater resistance to fracturing, and therefore offers the maximum number of cutting points and minimum surface contact. This has a direct impact within a lower horsepower requirement of the transformer core cutting machine as well as to increase the life for your tool. Lower grade diamond is less expensive and customarily has more irregularly shaped and angular crystals which is more best for less severe applications.
Synthetic diamond can be grown in a number of mesh sizes to put the desired application. Mesh sizes are usually in the range of 20 to 50 U.S. Mesh (840 to 297 microns) in construction applications. How big the diamond crystals, along with the concentration, determines the amount of diamond that will be exposed above the cutting top of the segments in the blade. The exposure, or height, of diamond protrusion (Figure 3) influences the depth of cut of each crystal, and subsequently, the opportunity material removal rate. Larger diamond crystals and greater diamond protrusion will lead to a potentially faster material removal rate should there be enough horsepower available. As a general rule, when cutting softer materials, larger diamond crystals are used, and once cutting harder materials, smaller crystals are utilized.
The diamond mesh size within a cutting tool also directly refers to the number of crystals per carat as well as the free cutting capacity for the diamond tool. The lesser the mesh size, the larger the diamond crystals, while larger mesh size means smaller diamond. A 30/40 Mesh blocky diamond has about 660 crystals per carat, while a 40/50 Mesh diamond may have 1,700 crystals per carat.
Specifying the correct mesh dimensions are the work from the diamond tool manufacturer. Producing the correct number of cutting points can maximize the lifetime of the tool and reduce the equipment power requirements. As one example, a diamond tool manufacturer might want to work with a finer mesh size to boost the quantity of cutting crystals on a low concentration tool which improves tool life and power requirements.
Diamond Impact Strength
All diamond is not really exactly the same, and this is also true for the potency of diamonds utilized in construction applications. The capability of a diamond to withstand an impact load is usually called diamond impact strength. Other diamond-related factors, including crystal shape, size, inclusions and the distribution of the crystal properties, are involved within the impact strength too.
Impact strength may be measured and it is typically called Toughness Index (TI). Furthermore, crystals are also exposed to extremely high temperatures during manufacturing and in some cases throughout the cutting process. Thermal Toughness Index (TTI) is definitely the way of measuring the ability of your diamond crystal to withstand thermal cycling. Subjecting the diamond crystals to high temperature, permitting them to return to room temperature, then measuring the modification in toughness makes this measurement beneficial to a diamond tool manufacturer.
The company must pick the right diamond depending on previous experience or input from the operator from the field. This decision relies, partly, about the tool’s design, bond properties, material to be cut and Straight core cutting machine. These factors has to be balanced by your selection of diamond grade and concentration which will provide the operator with optimum performance at the suitable cost.
Generally, a better impact strength is required for more demanding, harder-to-cut materials. However, always using higher impact strength diamond that is more expensive will never always help the operator. It may possibly not improve, and might degrade tool performance.
A diamond saw blade consists of a circular steel disk with segments containing the diamond that are connected to the outer perimeter from the blade (Figure 4). The diamonds are locked in place through the segment, and that is a specially formulated combination of metal bond powders and diamond, that were pressed and heated inside a sintering press by the manufacturer. The diamond and bond are tailor-created to the particular cutting application. The exposed diamonds at first glance from the segment do the cutting. A diamond blade cuts inside a manner just like how sand paper cuts wood. Since the blade cuts, bond tails are formed dexqpky76 trail behind each diamond (Figure 5). This bond tail provides mechanical support to the diamond crystal. As the blade rotates from the material, the diamonds chip away at the material being cut (Figure 6).
The optimal lifetime of a diamond starts as a whole crystal that becomes exposed throughout the segment bond matrix. Since the blade actually starts to cut, a tiny wear-flat develops as well as a bond tail develops behind the diamond. Eventually, small microfractures develop, however the diamond remains to be cutting well. Then your diamond actually starts to macrofracture, and in the end crushes (Figure 7). This is the last stage of any diamond before it experiences a popout, where the diamond quite literally pops out from the bond. The blade continues to work as its cutting action is taken over from the next layer of diamonds which can be interspersed through the segment.
The metal bond matrix, which is often made of iron, cobalt, nickel, bronze or some other metals in various combinations, was designed to wear away after many revolutions in the blade. Its wear rates are designed so that it will wear for a price that will provide maximum retention of the diamond crystals and protrusion through the matrix so they can cut.
The diamond and bond interact with each other and it is as much as the maker to provide the ideal combination based upon input in the cutting contractor given specific cutting requirements. Critical factors for both sides to manage will be the bond system, material to get cut and machine parameters. The mix of diamond and bond accomplishes a number of critical functions.